Phi-Tec II bench-scale adiabatic calorimeter by Hazard Evaluation Laboratory (London, UK)
The instrument consists of a small test cell (ranging from 44 to 110 cm3 and in stainless steel or glass) surrounded by a set of electrically powered guard heaters, placed inside a four-litre, stainless steel containment vessel rated at 137 bar.
A PC monitors the reaction temperatures and pressures and the guard heaters used to track the sample temperature, thereby creating adiabatic conditions.
The instrument detects the presence of an exothermic reaction when the reaction self-heat rate is higher than 0.02 °C/min. The guard heaters can track the sample temperature to rates as high as 200 °C/min.
Experimental assessment of hazardous chemical reactions and scale up of industrial processes
- Determination of the heat evolved and the pressure developed during an uncontrolled exothermic runaway reaction
- Low phi-factor testing
- Scale up of reactive processes and hazard assessment
Key data obtained:
- Exothermic ‘onset’ temperature
- Heat release (or temperature rise)
- Pressure increase
- Kinetic data
- Determination of venting behaviour (gassy, vapour, hybrid)
- Determination of flow regime (two-phase or single phase)
- Support to emergency relief venting sizing